16 грудня 2011 р.

Landscape As Itself And For Men


Abstract for book of Alexander Kovalyov, "Landscape As Itself And ForMen". Kha008
Two last decades were known for that in Geography and landscape-knowing deep changes were marked, connected with the growth of view instability not only in some separate terms and conceptions, but in general conceptions about structure and function of Geosphere, and also the perception structure that is to depict it. Of course such crisis in science are normal. Moreover they can’t take place, as science is an evolving system with a viscosity. That behaves as a non-liner dissipate system. In landscape knowing during almost the whole XX century a parallel development of two epistem took place, that are connected with two different conceptions. The first one was based on the etymology of the word “Landscape” that appeared in the Renaissance ages and that’s why is more natural, strengthened in its habitual landscape understanding as a picture of locality; the second one that is connected with L.S. Berg’s works and further taken and developed first of all in the ranges of Soviet physical geography and landscape knowing geocomplex. The given work is an attempt to give a systematical description of the first one, in the ranges of which the landscape is looked upon as a daylight surface picture organization. Landscape is introduced as so-called a “face” of the daylight surface – the surface where the geosystem action is reflected.
In epistem ranges suggested by the author, the leading is a conception about geosystem as the organization of multitude of elementary processes. Geosystem is looked upon as a machine, the action of which comes to the daylight surface asymmetry born. Global geosystem is a wholeness including a lot of regimes (also the machines) of different scales and organizational levels. We propose to distinguish these regimes as sluggish, biotized and anthropotized and the last ones in their turn differ into agrogeosystems, technogeosystems, urbogeosystems and noogeosystems. The peculiar regime realizes in the process of spirit connection formation with Nature. Each of this organization level corresponds to its geosphere: sluggish geosphere, biosphere, anthroposhere, including agrosphere, technosphere, noosphere. The peak of evolution is divosphere as an expression of a human-nature organic. Every type of geosystem regimes construct proper geocomplexes and geocomplex in contrast to the generally accepted point of view is looked upon as an organization of active surfaces. They come out on the daylight surface in the type of morphotypes and their organizations in the space that are perceived as landscape. The examples of daylight surface morphotypes and variants of their organization are given. So the clear differences between such notions as “geosystem”, “geocomplex”, “daylight surface” and “landscape” are made, and the landscape is introduced as a pattern, the image of the perceptible locality that appears on the contact of a man and the daylight surface. It needed introducing such a concept as ontolandscape as an organizational basic which is in the daylight surface structure, but it doesn’t appear fully and becomes the source of individual images.
The daylight surface is looked upon as something like a monitor, on which with the help of an alphabet of involuntary elements and morphotype dictionary the geosystem “embroiders” mosaic, ornament, “writes” a text. The main is that this ornament contains information about “grammar” which is in the base of its appearance. That’s why a great attention is paid in this work to the problem of human visual perception of the daylight surface. As a result of this perception different forms and levels of daylight surface structure images may appear, depending on experience culture and aims. The main aspects are phenomenological, scientific (physical and informational aspects), artistically-esthetic and religious-sacral. They are given in the work together with the problem of geoworld and human evolution. The peculiar place is given to such aspects of landscape of perception as esthetic and phenomenological that as the author consider, will have the main meaning in divosphere – sphere of spiritual metabolism, the formation of which completes geoworld evolution. Some methods of daylight surface investigation are suggested according to their pictures with the use of colors gradients and Fourier spectrums that permit to come to solving of attractiveness problem. There are given samples of concrete landscapes analysis.
The most complicate problem of the traditional landscape knowing is discussed in the look-landscape morphology. It is shown that the idea the landscape can be divided into components isn’t right, as the landscape is undivided wholeness. Such analyses can be provided only with the daylight surface but facies and locality don’t have any relation either to the surface morphology or to its taxonomy. Facial as it is given in Geology, is viewed upon as a relation between some character peculiarities of the whole fragment of daylight surface (or a complex) and the conditions that identify possibility of its appearance and stable existence. It means that every whole object can be characterized by its facies but it doesn’t come itself to the structure of facieses: facies is a situational image
where the given structure is realized in the case of a landscape we must include a man there with his individual peculiarities of perception. But it may be said about a phisiofacies as a visually homogeneous part of the daylight landscape and about a substructural state connecting different more or less whole fragments of the surface. It corresponds to the idea of zero landscape, which is taken with Landscape ecology. Locality is simply a landscape making space of different scale. This space of structural saturation permits to form a whole pattern. That’s why we can speak about representative locality as a space of minimal landscape. Minimal landscape is an invariant that is in the base of different landscape types separation. It introduces a lot of landscape making distances as distances from which the organization of surface picture of the corresponding scale level becomes to appear.
Different aspects of landscape perception are viewed and in their turn a scientific, phenomenological, sacral and esthetic ones. A problem of modeling in Geography is taken apart and among them in the area of cellular automatons. In this connection the process of structure surface dynamics is given which T. Kochneva has made in ranges of the general author’s program. Such modeling permits to receive model quasi-landscape – a surface structure, demonstrating presence of a general organic action received on the base of exceptional local interaction between model elements.

For more information, go to this page.

To purchase a book of O. Kovalyov "Ландшафт сам по себе и для человека" (“Landscape As Itself And For Men”), write to the author's e-mail: a_kovalyov_p@mail.ru

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